COD Reduction and Removal

What is Chemical Oxygen Demand?

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is used as a measure of organic pollutants in water and is expressed in milligrams per litre (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm).

The most common application of COD is in quantifying the amount of oxidisable pollutants found in water. A COD test can be used to decipher the level of organics in water.

Regulators enforce limits on the maximum amount of COD allowed in wastewater before it enters the environment and the local utility provider stipulates levels for effluent going to sewer. Businesses which use water in their manufacturing processes must be mindful of the level of COD in their wastewater, or risk being forced to pay strict fines.

COD can be split into two types – non-biodegradable and biodegradable.

The Nyex™ processes specialise in the non-biodegradable category, as the biodegradable type tend to be broken down using a simple biological treatment process. Non-biodegradable compounds tend to be recalcitrant in nature, requiring a more advanced tertiary process to remove.

Chemical Oxygen Demand

Non-biodegradable COD

Biodegradable COD (BOD)

Pharmaceuticals Aliphatic compounds**
Persistent organic pollutants Aromatics**
Industrial chemicals Fatty acids
Pesticides* Nutrients
Organic additives Proteins

*Agrichemical companies are making strides to produce biodegradable pesticides, but the majority are still non-biodegradable

**There are a few non-biodegradable aliphatic compounds and aromatics – the Nyex™ process is suited to both types

How to reduce COD in wastewater

Primary and secondary treatments remove around 75-85% COD, but the hard-to-treat COD remains. Typically, legislation for COD discharge is from below 120 mg/L in the EU to below 50 mg/L in China and therefore in order to meet regulatory standards, additional treatment is often required.

Arvia’s on site Nyex™ treatment systems provide a successful treatment solution for reducing COD for numerous industries worldwide.

Systems can be retrofitted into an existing treatment train to improve treatment capacity or as a standalone process, dependant on removal requirements. The Nyex™-a system uses between 10 to 20 kWh/kg* COD power due to the targeted nature of the treatment process.

Nyex™ treated wastewater can also be safely reclaimed and reused for other purposes within the business, saving money and addressing high water demands in times of shrinking supplies.

*all ranges supplied are based on treatment experience and values are to be validated for each individual project following an in-depth treatability trial.

What are the benefits of COD reduction?

Reducing COD levels positively affects the environment by reducing the amount of contamination which enters our water supplies. It also helps organisations avoid fines from utilities or regulatory bodies.

Failure to comply with regulations can result in a loss of permit, operational downtime, limited production volume and severe fines.

By adopting a wastewater treatment process which has the ability to remove low to trace levels of organics, you can meet regulations and prove commitment to the protection of the environment.

Please remove COD from my wastewater

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To find out more about how Arvia can support with your treatment targets, drop us a line today.

Remove my COD please!
Arvia Technology Ltd

Safer water for future generations


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WA7 4EB (Satnav WA7 4NH)

+44 01928515310
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+86 139 1635 6691